Nordic building LCA comparison

 

Below is a comparison of different Nordic LCA methods for buildings. The table is compiled by Matti Kuittinen, Ministry of the Environment in Finland, with input from the Nordic building authorites and experts on the different methods that are compared.

11 different methods are compared in the following categories: general information, included life cycle stages, included building parts, included building types, technical service lives (TSL) and replacements, energy, data and other methodological features.

Denmark

Finland

Norway

Sweden

EU

RTS

General

Description

Method for upcoming regulation

LCA tool (for Sustainability Class and DGNB-DK)

Voluntary certification system

Method for upcoming regulation

Voluntary certification system

Standard

Voluntary certification system

Method for upcoming regulation

Proposed extension to the upcoming regulation

Voluntary certification system

Voluntary reporting framework

Developed by

The Danish Transport, Construction, and Housing Authority

Department of the Build Environment (Aalborg University)

Green Building Council Denmark

Ministry of the Environment

Building Information Foundation (GWP by GBC 2013)

Standard Norge

BRE/ Norwegian Green Building Council

National Board of Housing, Building and Planning

National Board of Housing, Building and Planning

Green Building Council Sweden

European Commissions Joint Research Centre

Status

Test phase

In use

In use

Under development

In use

In use

In use

Under development

Under development

Under development

Under development

At which stage can the method be used?

Building permission & completion

Building permission & completion

Design stage / completion

Building permission & completion

Design stage/ post-construction stage

Completion of the building

Completion of the building

Completion of the building

Completion of the building

Methodological basis

EN15978, EN15804

EN15978

EN15978, German DGNB

EN15978, Level(s)

EN15978

EN15978, Norwegian standards

ISO14044, EN15978, NS3720

EN15978

EN 15978

SS EN 15978/15804, EPD, GHG Protocol, EU JRC, EU Level(s)

EN15978, other standards, PEF

Reference study period (RSP)

50

50

50

50

50

60

60

n/a

50

50

50

User-defined RSP allowed

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Unit for reporting

kgCO2e/ heated m2/ year

kgCO2e/ gross m2/ year

kgCO2e/ m2/ year

kgCO2e/ heated m2/ year

kgCO2e/ net m2/ year

User-defined

kgCO2e/ m²/year

kgCO2e/ gross m2

kgCO2e/ gross m2/ year

kgCO2e/ gross m2

kgCO2e/ net m2/ year

Indicators

GWP, ODP, POCP, AP, EP, ADPe, ADPf, Petot,

GWP, ODP, POCP, AP, EP, ADPe, ADPf, PEtot, Sek

GWP, POCP, AP, EP, ADPf, PE,

GWP, carbon handprint

GWP

GWP

Several

GWP

GWP

GWP

Several

Verification required

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Included life cycle stages

Sustainability Class (DK)
LCAbyg (DK)

DGNB-DK

Climate Declaration (FI)

RTS (FI)

NS 3720 (NO)

BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)

Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)
Klimat-deklaration 2027 (SWE)

NollCO2 remiss v.1.0 (SWE)

Level(s) 2020 (EU)

A1 Raw material aqcuisition

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

A2 Transport

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

A3 Manufacturing

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

A4 Transport to site

x

x

(x)

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

A5 Construction works

x

x

(x)

x

x

x

(x)

x

x

x

x

B1 Use in building

-

-

-

-

x

x

(x)

-

-

x

x

B2 Maintenance

-

-

-

-

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

B3 Repairs

-

-

-

-

x

x

(x)

-

-

x

x

B4 Replacements

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

B5 Refurbishment

-

-

-

-

-

x

(x)

-

-

x

x

B6 Operational energy use

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

(x)

x

x

B7 Operational water use

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

x

B8 Operational use

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

-

C1 Demolition works

-

-

-

x

x

x

-

-

x

x

x

C2 Transport

-

-

-

x

x

x

-

-

x

x

x

C3 Waste management

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

x

x

x

C4 Final disposal

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

x

x

x

D Benefits/loads beyond system

x

x

-

x

-

x

-

-

-

-

x

Included building parts

Sustainability Class (DK)

LCAbyg (DK)
DGNB-DK

Climate Declaration (FI)

RTS (FI)

NS 3720 (NO)

BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)

Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)
Klimat-deklaration 2027 (SWE)
NollCO2 remiss v.1.0 (SWE)
Level(s) 2020 (EU)

Foundations

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Piling

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

-

x

x

Cellar walls

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Ground floor structure

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

External walls

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Frame

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Facade

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

External doors

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Windows

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Internal walls, load-bearing

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Internal walls, not load-bearing

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Internal doors

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Floor slabs

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

x

Flooring materials

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

x

Roofs

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Ceilings

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Stairs and ramps

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Lifts and escalators

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Electricity system

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Lighting

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Heating system

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Cooling system

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Ventilation system

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Renewable energy systems

x

x

(x)

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Water system

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Sewage system

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Data system

-

-

-

-

-

x

(x)

-

-

-

x

Sequrity system

-

-

-

-

-

x

(x)

-

-

-

x

Building automation system

-

-

-

-

x

x

(x)

-

-

-

-

Balconies

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

x

x

x

x

External structures on yard

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

-

-

x

Paving

x

x

x

-

x

x

(x)

-

-

-

x

Interior finishes

-

x

x

-

x

x

(x)

-

x

x

x

Fixed furniture

x

-

x

x

-

x

-

-

x

-

x

Furniture

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

-

Kitchen and bathroom appliances

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

?

x

x

Vegetation or soil

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

-

Temporary scaffolding (A5, B3-4)

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

x

-

Included building types

Sustainability Class (DK)
LCAbyg (DK)
DGNB-DK

Climate Declaration (FI)

RTS (FI)
NS 3720 (NO)
BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)
Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)
Klimat-deklaration 2027 (SWE)
NollCO2 remiss v.1.0 (SWE)
Level(s) 2020 (EU)

Single-family home

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

?

-

Residential building

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Office

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Retail and restaurant

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

School and daycare

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

?

-

Hospital and health

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

Sports facilities

x

x

-

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

Cultural and other public

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

?

-

Religious

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

Industrial

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

-

-

x

-

Summer cottages

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

-

Renovation projects

x

x

x

x

x

x

(x)

-

-

?

x

Technical service lives (TSL) and replacements

Sustainability Class (DK)

LCAbyg (DK)

DGNB-DK

Climate Declaration (FI)
RTS (FI)
NS 3720 (NO)
BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)

Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)

Klimat-deklaration 2027 (SWE)
NollCO2 remiss v.1.0 (SWE)
Level(s) 2020 (EU)

TSL for products defined

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

TSL for building parts defined

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Energy
Sustainability Class (DK)
LCAbyg (DK)
DGNB-DK
Climate Declaration (FI)
RTS (FI)
NS 3720 (NO)
BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)
Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)

Calculation method for the consumption of operational energy

As for building permission (BR18)

As for building permission (BR18)

As for building permission (BR18)

As for building permission (YMa1010/2017)

As for building permission (YMa1010/2017)

NS 3031 or measured consumption

NS 3031

Not relevant

As for building permission (BBR)

As for building permission (BBR)

Level(s) indicator 1.1

Possibility to use market-based GWP-values for energy

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Not relevant

?

?

Not defined

Energy decarbonisation scenario

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Not relevant

Yes

Yes

Yes

Method for decarbonisation scenario

Danish national policy scenario (COWI 2020)

Danish national policy scenario (COWI 2020)

Danish national policy scenario (COWI 2020)

Finnish national policy scenario (2019)

No

NOR and EU scenarios, decarbonise linearly by 2050

No

Not relevant

?

Interpolation to national climate neutrality target

EU PRIMES

Allocation method for CHP fuels

COWI 2020

COWI 2020

Not defined

Benefit-sharing

Benefit-sharing

No

Benefit-sharing

Not relevant

?

?

Not defined

Data

Sustainability Class (DK)
LCAbyg (DK)
DGNB-DK
Climate Declaration (FI)
RTS (FI)

NS 3720 (NO)

BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)
Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)
Klimat-deklaration 2027 (SWE)
NollCO2 remiss v.1.0 (SWE)
Level(s) 2020 (EU)

Generic database (if defined)

Ökobaudat

Ökobaudat

Ökobaudat

National (2021)

Not defined

No

No

National (2021)

National (2021)

(1) National 2021, (2) Byggnad-sektorns Klimat Beräknings-verktyg, (3) Ökobaudat

Not defined

EPD´s required, if available

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes if possible

Yes

Yes

Data quality requirements defined

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

(Not relevant)

Yes

Yes

n/a

Yes

Conservativity' factor on data

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes (10%)

(Not relevant)

(Not relevant)

To be decided

To be decided

n/a

(Not relevant)

Other methodological features

Sustainability Class (DK)
LCAbyg (DK)
DGNB-DK
Climate Declaration (FI)
RTS (FI)

NS 3720 (NO)

BREEAM-NOR 2016 (NO)
Klimat-deklaration 2022 (SWE)
Klimat-deklaration 2027 (SWE)
NollCO2 remiss v.1.0 (SWE)
Level(s) 2020 (EU)

Biobased carbon storages reported

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Cement carbonation reported

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Surplus renewable operational energy reported

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

?

GWP-bio reported separately

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

?

GWP-luluc reported separately

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

?

Compensations included

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

LCA cut-off rules given

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Construction-site waste and leftovers included

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

?

End-of-life scenarios specified

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

n/a

?

Separate tool available

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

?

No

Market-based LCA tools allowed

Yes

n/a

Yes

Yes

Yes

n/a

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Did you notice something that is not up-to-date? Please send us information and we are happy to update the table!