Modelling of electricity in Product Environmental Footprints

Type Research project
Time period 2022-11-01 - Ongoing


The European Commission launched Environmental Footprint methods to measure and communicate the environmental performance of products (both goods and services) and organizations across their life cycle, from raw material extraction or cultivation to the end-of-life management, via production, distribution, and use.

These methods, Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) and Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF), are now being referred to in EU legislation. The proposed regulations for Eco-design of photovoltaic modules and batteries includes requirements on the maximum climate impact of these products. This climate impact will be calculated using the PEF methodology and its related Product Category Rules (PEFCR) for photovoltaics. Since this is the first use of PEF in legislation, it may become a precedent for future use of PEF in a policy context.

In the draft Eco-design regulations for photovoltaics, the rules for modelling the electricity supply do not reflect the calculation rules in the most recent PEF guidelines. These PEF rules, in turn, have been criticized for lack of clarity and for allowing for greenwashing.

Aim of project

The project aims to investigate the need for revised texts regarding the modelling of electricity production in the EU Eco-design regulation for photovoltaics and in the general PEF rules. The project also aims to bring proposals for such revisions. These revisions will also have an impact on the battery regulation since this also refers to the PEF method.

Expected outcomes

In a first stage, researchers will develop tentative proposals based on input from literature and key actors. In a possible second stage these proposals can be refined through communication with actors and stakeholders in Sweden and other Nordic countries.

Project organisation
Chalmers University of Technology RISE Research Institutes of Sweden TERRA